Nietzsche's Score of the
"Hymnus an die Freundschaft"
(Hymn to Friendship)
" Wagner zeigt seine Macht besonders darin, wie er die Widerwilligen unterjocht. Kein begabter Musiker ist mehr, der nicht innerlich auf ihn hinhorchte und ihn hörenswerter finde als die übrige Musik zusammen. Viele, die durchaus etwas bedeuten wollen, ringen geradezu mit diesem sie bewältigenden inneren Reize, aber wo sehe man einen, der jetzt noch sich frei erhalten hätte? - sie werden kleinlicher, suchen schlechte Bundesgenossen und Freunde, schmeicheln der Zeit und verderben so: zumal aber wenn sie die große Form affektieren, sind sie nicht mehr ehrlich, sondern wollen täuschen. Besten Falls sind sie fleißig und lernen das, was in der Musik zu lernen ist: in Vertrauen darauf, daß die "Gebildeten" den schwierigen Unterschied zwischen Original und Kopie, zwischen Erlernbarem und Unlernbarem nicht merken, schaffen sie darauf los. Ihnen allen sei, wenn sie durchaus komponieren wollen, die kleinste Form anempfohlen, etwas was ich mit freiem Ausdrucke das musikalische Epigramm nennen möchte, dafür reicht vielleicht der Witz und die Gestaltungsskraft, und sie können ehrlich sein, dabei kann noch Herrliches entstehn, wie bei den Griechen, die sich auch auf die kleinste Form warfen, als die großen vorweggenommen waren" (Mappe loser Blätter - Sommer 1875: Vorarbeit zu "Richard Wagner in Bayreuth"; [Wagner shows his power particularly in the way in which he sends those who like to oppose his influence into submission. There is not one talented musician left who would not, inwardly, listen to him and would not find him worth listening to more than the rest of all of music together. Many who seem to desperately want to make an impact virtually wrestle with this inner motivation that overwhelms them, and where can one still find someone who would be able to keep himself free from this? - they become more small-minded, look for bad allies and friends, dishonestly praise their times and are spoilt thus: particularly when they try to emulate the large form, they are no longer honest, but want to fool us. At best, they are hard-working and learn what there is to be learnt in music: in the hope that the "educated" might not discover the intricate difference between original and copy, between that which can be learned and that which can not be learned, they keep on creating. To all of them, if they want to keep insisting on composing, one should recommend the small form, what I, freely, want to describe as musical epigram; perhaps, for that, their wit and their creativity is still sufficient, and they can remain honest; in it, wonderful things can still be accomplished, as did the ancient Greeks when they turned to the smallest form after the large forms had been used up" (Binder of loose sheets - summer 1875: Preparation for "Richard Wagner in Bayreuth"]).
As pointed out above, Nietzsche wrote these words in the summer of 1875. From his recommendation of the small form to young composers one could refer back to his own efforts at composition. How did he develop as composer and what fate did his compositions experience?
With respect to this, you were already able to learn something in Helmut Walther's Essay Nietzsche and Music. Here, I want to particularly point out the following cross-connection between Beethoven and Nietzsche. From Haydn's second trip to England in 1794 on, Beethoven turned to the esteemed Viennese composer Johann Georg Albrechtsberger for the completion of his counterpoint studies.
Later, the latter was supposed to have said that Beethoven, of whose talent he thought much, was a very stubborn student who had to learn from his own mistakes rather than from anything that he was being taught. However, it should also be noted that Albrechtsberger was no longer able to appreciate Beethoven's works, particularly those of his second style period.
Nietzsche, too, turned to Beethoven's counterpoint teacher for instruction in composition! However, he only had this teacher's works for self study at his disposal. With respect to these, I would like to present you with my findings on two titles in the German internet antique book market:
"ALBRECHTSBERGER, JOHANN GEORG. Sämmtliche Schriften über Generalbaß, Harmonie=Lehre, und Tonkunst; zum Selbstunterrichte ... und einer kurzen Anleitung zum Partitur=Spiel, nebst Beschreibung aller bis jetzt gebräuchlichen Instrumente, vermehrt und herausgegeben von seinem Schüler, Ignaz Ritter von Seyfried. Zweite, sorgfältig revidierte Auflage. Erster [bis dritter] Band. Wien, Haslinger [1837} . . .
Im Anhang Biographie Albrechtsbergers und ein Verzeichnis seiner Schüler. Die erste Auflage erschien 1826 bei Strauss in Wien. Innenseite der Ebd. mit Verlagsanzeigen.
- : Anweisung zur Composition mit ausführlichen Exempeln, zum Selbstunterrichte erläutert mit einem Anhange von der Beschaffenheit und Anwendung aller jetzt üblichen musikalischen Instrumente. Lpz., B&H . . . .
J. G. Albrechtsberger ist vor allem für seine theoretischen Werke und als Lehrer Beethovens bekannt" (Source: "http://www.mediaintegration.com/dreiraaben/titel/ Katalog6/Buch.htm", cited on November 15, 2000).
We can safely assume that Nietzsche turned to a suitable and available edition of the second title. However, how he proceeded with his self-study can not be determined with certainty.
However, we are very pleased that we can at least offer you a listening example that might provide some idea of what influence Beethoven had on Nietzsche, namely: An early Allegretto for piano, on which Nietzsche worked off and on from 1958 until it found its final form during his Leipzig study period. In it, Nietzsche used Beethovenian material, which becomes particularly apparent in the slow passage in the last third, which is reminiscent of the so-called 'Moonlight' sonata. In this recording, you can hear Michael Tannenbaum in a concert at the Evangelical Academy at Hofgeismar, Hesse, which took place there on October 28, 2000.
What you can learn, however, is a great deal more of particulars with respect to this in a further, interesting presentation respectively internet article by Helmut Walther, Nietzsche as Composer, which you can access via this link: Nietzsche as Composer. I wish you an interesting time of exploration and listening experience and ask you to use the back button of your browser in order to return to this site.
Nietzsche as Music Critic
After we have accompanied Nietzsche in his development as a composer, to which Helmut Walther's article provided us with a wealth of information again, we might wish to explore yet another fact of Nietzsche's relationship to music: that of a music critic. As usual, we offer you two links: the one on the menu bar to the left and the following link below. Enjoy!