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JOY
HOW THE ODE TO IT WAS WRITTEN
Time Table 
Part Two: 1785 - 1793





Schiller
Beethoven
We may begin our 'timetable journey' by coming back to the Loschwitz 'vineyard cabin' to which Schiller retreated in the fall of 1785 to continue writing on his play 'Don Carlos', while he also enjoyed Koerner's friendship.
BACKGROUND LINK TO THE YEAR 1785

1785

Mid-February of that year saw the publication of the first new issue of 'Thalia' which Schiller wrote mostly by himself. The new volume counted as no. 2 of the entire series. In it, Schiller's 'Ode to Joy', set to music by his friend Koerner, was featured, as well as a story entitled "Verbrecher aus Infamie'(Criminal by Infamy) which Schiller published in vol. 1 of the 'Kleineren prosaischen Schriften von Schiller' under the title 'Der Verbrecher aus verlorener Ehre' (The Criminal due to lost honor) in 1792.

At the end of April respectively the beginning of May, vol. 3 of 'Thalia' was published in Leipzig by Goeschen. It contained the "Philosophische Briefe', the origins of which reach back as far as Schiller's 'Karlsschule' days; behind the pseudonyms of 'Julius' and 'Raphael' were hiding the true authors Schiller and Koerner.

Schiller's restless mind began to reach for new horizons by building on his recent involvement with historical subjects and by expanding this activity to reading historical works, particularly of the Thirty-Year War.

His main writing activity, however, consisted of carrying on with his play 'Don Carlos'. The famous dialogue between Marquis de Posa and King Phillip II of Spain of scene 10 of Act 3 was completed in the summer of 1786 at Loschwitz.
BRACKGROUND LINK TO THE YEAR 1786

1786

At the beginning of January, the fourth issue of 'Thalia' was published. It contained the first nine scenes of Act 3 of 'Don Carlos' and the first part of the story 'Der Geisterseher'.

The first part of the year also saw Schiller continue to enjoy his friendship with Koerner, and his brief acquaintance with the 19-year-old Henriette von Arnim whom he had met at a ball in February and whom Koerner did not approve of.

From April to mid-May, Schiller removed himself to Thurandt near Dreseden where he completed his preparations for the edition of 'Don Karlos Infant von Spanien'. The work was published in Leipzig by Goeschen in June.

On July 20th, after having celebrated Koerner's birthday on July 2nd, Schiller set out for Hamburg where 'Don Carlos' was to premiere on September 29th. The journey, however, did not take him any further than Weimar where he arrived on July 21st. There, he met the circle of Weimar 'greats' with Goethe being absent, but also his lady friend Charlotte von Kalb.

On November 23rd, Schiller arrived at Meiningen to visit his sister Christophine who had married Reinwald in June of that year. On December 5th, Schiller and his former Karlsschule fellow student Wilhelm von Wolzogen left Bauerbach near Meiningen and headed for Weimar. On December 6th, they arrived at Wilhelm's aunt, Frau von Lengefeld's house in Rudolstadt and met her daughters Charlotte von Lengefeld and Karoline von Beulwitz.

Throughout the year, Schiller also began and continued to write on his first historical work, 'Geschichte des Abfalls der vereinigten Niederlande von der Spanischen Regierung' (History of the Revolt of the Spanish Netherlands). In order for us to trace more of this information, we might wish to turn to our BACKGROUND SECTION FOR THE YEAR 1787

1787 The chapter 'Beethoven's Growth and Maturation' of our 'Biographical Pages' tells us of Beethoven's spring 1787 journey to Vienna, his having come into contact with Mozart, his abrupt return to Bonn via Augsburg due to his mother's final illness, his return to Bonn, his mother's death in July of that year, and his own falling into despair and melancholy after that, of which we learn from his letter to Councillor von Schaden in Augsburg. We might wish to take a closer look at this letter by referring to our BACKGROUND LINK TO THE YEAR 1787 - BEETHOVEN.
At the end of January, the first print of Schiller's ‘Einleitung zur Geschichte des Abfalls der Niederlande' (History of the Revolt of the Spanish Netherlands) was featured in Wieland's ‘Teutscher Merkur'.

At the end of February, this was followed by parts of volume 1 of that work.

In the meantime, namely in mid-February, Schiller had begun to correspond with Charlotte von Lengefeld who stayed in Weimar from mid-January to the beginning of April.

From the 20th of May on, Schiller occupied lodgings at Volkstaedt near Rudolstadt that had been arranged for him by the von Lengefeld family.

He busied himself with his writings on the ‘Revolt of the Spanish Netherlands' and other writings.

At the end of July, Schiller's first ‘Four Letters on Don Carlos' were published in the ‘Teutscher Merkur'.

In August, Schiller's intensive studies of antique literature set in.

By that time, he had also moved from Volkstaedt to Rudolstadt.

September 7th marked the ‘historical event' of Schiller's and Goethe's first direct personal meeting and becoming personally acquainted when the latter visited Rudolstadt.

At the end of October, the first volume of the ‘History of the Revolt of the Spanish Netherlands' was published by Siegfried Lebrecht Crusius in Leipzig.

By mid-November, Schiller returned from Rudolstadt to Weimar.

At the beginning of December, the opening of an (unsalaried) professorship in history at the University of Jena was pointed out to Schiller.
BACKGROUND LINK TO THE YEAR 1788

1788
Of this year, we can only report that Beethoven, as discussed in our ‘biographical pages' (Section: ‘Long-Frustrated Wishes - The Later Bonn Years') had stopped composing altogether while he mainly carried out his duties as court musician and as ‘virtual head' of his family's household--as his father never re-gained his in any case ‘shaky bearings' after his wife's death, while his tenor voice deteriorated and his alcohol consumption rapidly increased. We have also already pointed out the vital role the von Breuning family, particularly Mme. von Breuning, played in providing a second home to Beethoven. What can also be considered very likely is Beethoven's developing friendship with his new patron, Count Waldstein.
January 21st brought Schiller's official appointment as professor by the Weimar Court.

At the beginning of March, vol. 6 of ‘Thalia' was published by Goeschen in Leipzig, containing the first three acts of ‘Iphigenie in Aulis' by Euripides in Schiller's translation.

The seventh, May, issue of that year then contained the conclusion of this translation, as well as a continuation of the ‘Geisterseher.'

Schiller's doctoral diploma of the philosophical faculty of the University of Jena bore as effective date that of April 28th, while Schiller held his ‘acceptance speech' on May 26.

During the summer semester, Schiller lectured on an ‘Einleitung in die Universalgeschichte' (Introduction to Universal History, 2 hours a week).

At the beginning of August, Schiller became secretly engaged to Charlotte von Lengefeld. From about mid-September to mid-October, after the end of the summer semester, Schiller spent his time with the Lengefelds in Rudolstadt.

Towards the end of October, Schiller began a new lecture series on the ‘Universalgeschichte von der fraenkischen Monarchie bis Friedrich II' (Universal History from the Frankish Monarchy to Frederik II), to the extent of five hours a week.

Also at the end of October re. the beginning of November, vol. 8 of ‘Thalia' was published. It contained Schiller's translation of Euripides' work ‘Phoenizierinnen', but also the first book edition of ‘Der Geisterseher'.

On the other hand, Schiller also approached the Mannheim theater manager von Dalberg's brother, the titular bishop Karl von Dalberg of the diocese of Erfurt which belonged to the Archdiocese of Mainz, and asked him (in vain) for a position at the University of Mainz.

Schiller's November 15th letter to his fiancee and her sister reflect some of his thoughts with respect to their relationship.

The end of November respectively the beginning of December saw the publication by Johann Michael Mauke in Leipzig of the first volume of the ‘Allgemeine Sammlung Historischer Memoires vom zwoelften Jahrhundert bis auf die neuesten Zeiten durch mehrere Verfasser uebersetzt, und jedesmal mit einer universalhistorischen Uebersicht begleitet herausgegeben von Friedrich Schiller Professor der Philosophie in Jena'(in short, a collection of historical memoirs from the 12th to the 18th centuries, by various authors, introduced and edited by Schiller who is described as ‘Professor of Philosophy' at Jena.

On December 22nd, Schiller received Frau von Lengefeld's official blessings of his marriage plans.
BACKGROUND LINK TO THE YEAR 1789

1789
While this year continued for Beethoven as the last had ended, it would bring with it the settlement of his family affairs, along with his father's retirement as court tenor, the already discussed ‘pension settlement', and Beethoven's once-again increased social and creative activities.
For some more background information on this issue, click here!

On January 2nd, Schiller was bestowed with the title of a Meiningen Court Councillor.

On February 22nd, Schiller's wedding with Charlotte von Lengefeld was celebrated quietly in Weningenjena.

Charlotte moved to Jena. The couple took up lodgings in the house of the Schramm spinsters, the so-called ‘Schrammei', where they would live until 1793.

In the middle of May, Schiller began a five-hour lecture series on the ‘Universalgeschichte bis zur Gruendung der frankischen Monarchie' (Universal history up to the founding of the Frankish monarhy) and a one-hour lecture series on the ‘Theorie der Tragoedie' (theory of tragedy).

In October, Goeschen in Leipzig published the ‘Historischer Kalender fuer Damen fuer das Jahr 1791 von Friedrich Schiller' (Historical Calendar for Ladies for the Year 1791).

At the end of October, Schiller began his lectures on the ‘Europaeische Staatengeschichte' (History of the European States), a five-hour lecture series, and on the history of the crusades, a one-hour lecture series.

Schiller also met Goethe again on October 31st. They probably discussed the works of the philosopher Kant.

At the end of Nobember, the eleventh volume of ‘Thalia' was published, featuring his ‘Etwas ueber die erste Menschengesellschaft nach dem Leitfaden der mosaischen Urkunde' (Something about the first human society according to the guidelines of the mosaic tenets' and ‘Die Gesetzgegung des Lykurgus von Solon' (the laws of Lykurgus of Solon), which were based on his summer 1789 lectures.

In this context, the writer would also like to mention some information she did not find in any reference material but confirmed directly with the Schiller Archives in Marbach, Germany: Schiller's essay, ‘Die Sendung des Moses' (The Mission of Moses) was featured in vol. 10 of ‘Thalia' which was also published in 1790. This information, while it belongs into the ‘Schiller' section of the time table, also casts ahead a shadow onto Beethoven's later fascination with this work and his preserving the tenets from this essay under glass at his desk. While this information is not directly related to the development of the ‘Ode to Joy', it certainly helps us to complete our image of Beethoven's ‘Schiller involvement'.
BACKGROUND LINK TO THE YEAR 1790

1790
In addition to Beethoven's duties as a member of the court orchestra (as viola player), his social, literary and intellectual interests that had resurfaced in late 1789, he also resumed his composing activities. With respect to the most important activity of this kind, as it relates to the development of the ‘Ode to Joy', we ask you to explore our background section.
Click here!

On January 3rd, Schiller, who, with his wife Charlotte, had spent the year-end with Karl von Dalberg at Erfurt, was accepted into the ‘Kurfuerstliche Akademie nuetzlicher Wissenschaften' (Electoral Academy of Useful Sciences).

During an afternoon concert that he attended, a fever attack befell him; he was suffering from acute pneumonia.

While he returned to Jena on January 12th to take up lecturing, the illness struck him down again the very next day.

At the end of January, the acute nature of his illness abated. However, its after-effects appeared to have been overlooked to a certain extent.

In the middle of March, Schiller, who had requested to be relieved of his duties, was granted his request by the Duke of Weimar.

At that time, Schiller began his studies of Kant's ‘Kritik der Urteilskraft' (Critique of Judgement).

When Schiller spent time with his wife in Rudolstadt from the beginning of April on, he suffered from severe suffocation attacks and cramps from May 8th to May 12th.

In Erfurt, rumors of his allegged death were circulated. Such rumors even reached Denmark.

After Schiller recuperated somewhat in the meantime, he went to Karlsbad to restore his energies, from the beginning of July to the beginning of August, and subsequently to Erfurt.

At the end of August, Schiller continued to work on his ‘Geschichte des Dreissigjaehrigen Krieges' (History of the Thirty-Year-War), but also on certain revisions of ‘Don Carlos'.

On December 13, Schiller received an offer for an annuity of 1,000 talers for three years, from the Danish Minister of Finance, Count Ernst von Schimmelmann, and from Duke Friedrich Christian von Schleswig-Holstein.
To access our background page for 1791, click here!

1791
In 1791, Beethoven carried on very much in the same vein as in the previous year. With respect to the ‘Kaiserkantaten' it can be reported that they were rehearsed in fall at Mergentheim but ultimately found too difficult to perform. A more thorough ‘narrative' of this time period has already been provided in ‘Beethoven's Later Bonn Years' of our ‘Biographical Pages'.
At the end of January, the first volume of the re-named ‘Neue Thalia' was published by Goeschen in Leipzig, followed by its second volume in March, and by the third volume in June.

In addition to his continued study of Kant, Schiller also looked at the ‘Wallenstein' topic with respect to his plans of writing a play.

On August 26, 1792, the Paris National Assembly ‘bestowed' on Schiller, together with 17 other foreigners, an honorary French citizenship, which Schiller, however, was only to learn of as late as in 1798.

At the beginning of November, Schiller took up lecturing again--albeit from his home--with a weekly three-to-four-hour lecture series on ‘aesthetics'.

He also planned to write an official ‘position paper' with respect to the French Revolution and to the situation of King Louis XVI, and a translation of it into French was also planned. Louis XVI's January 21, 1792, execution made these efforts ‘redundant'.
BACKGROUND INFORMATION TO 1792


1792
The ‘Kaiserkantaten' continued to play a role in Beethoven's ‘moving ahead' in 1792. He may very well have shown the ‘Funeral Cantata' to Haydn during the composer's spring/summer 1792 stopover in Bonn on his return from England, and the impression they may have created in Haydn could possibly have earned the young composer his ‘ticket to Vienna'. We may consider Beethoven as having left for Vienna not any later than November 3. More recent Beethoven as well as Schiller research also ‘re-iterates' an interesting fact: Schiller's friend, Bartholomaeus Ludwig Fischenich, who was to take up a professorship at the University of Bonn, was still in Weimar at the beginning of November of this year. The significance of this fact will readily become apparent. (For all other Beethoven life facts of this year, please refer to our relevant ‘biographical pages' section.
In the new year, Schiller began to work on his writings that arose out of his Kantian studies. At the end of January, respectively also at the beginning of February, Schiller wrote five long letters to his friend Koerner in which he explained his ideas to his plan of a dialogue entitled ‘Kallias oder
ueber die Schoenheit' (Kallias or on Beauty), but also his letters to the Duke of Augustenburg on ‘Ueber die aesthetische Erziehung des Menschen' (On the aesthetic education of man). BACKGROUND INFORMATION ON 1793

1793 January 26, 1793, marks the date of the letter young Professor Fischenich, who had apparently arrived in Bonn in late 1792, wrote to Schiller's wife Charlotte. It also discusses Beethoven's plans with respect to the ‘Ode to Joy'. For more information on this letter, please refer to the following background page!CLICK HERE!


TO PART THREE OF THE ODE TO JOY HISTORY!